Escape strategy of insects.
Escape strategy of insects.
- - Active
- * counter-attack
- - stinky liquid, repellent
chemicals to deter predation.
- - Caterpillars of swallowtail butterfly
possess glands behind the head called
- osmeteria, which
they evert when threatened and which possess a secretion
- effective against
- - urticating hairs
- - Some caterpillars have special spines
that containing itchy or painful venoms.
a predator brushes against the spines, the venom takes effect.
- - sting and bite,
- - modified
ovipositor, An ovipositor is the structure at the tip of the abdomen,
usually used for depositing eggs but in this case for injecting venom.
- - warning colour
- Most typical are insects that are colored black and either orange or yellow.
- Monarch butterflies display the flashy orange and black colors. They are
visible but may be very dangerous to birds. The larvae feed on milkweed and
pick up poisonous chemicals called cardiac glycosides, which are toxic to the
heart. The hypothesis is that once a bird tasted a Monarch it might learn to
associate the warning colors with the nausea associated with the poisonous
chemicals, which impart a bitter taste.
- - mimic other aggresive species
- - mimic again the predators - their
predators, the waste,
- Explore the image that will be avoided by predator, such as
predator's predator, predator's droppings.
- - Startle display. shock - by visial effect, sound effect,
- - eye patterns,
- - smell by caterpillar, sound by stick
insects and beetles
- * Behaviour
- - Fast running, flying, jumping
- - fuzzy flying path
- - play dead - death feigning
- - drop to ground - reflexive dropping,
- slide and drop
- drop and play dead
- drop and fly
- drop with safety line
- - fly in regular path, to avoid trap and
- - not move, keep still - remaining
- - threat displays
- - praying mantis
strikes out at attacker with forelegs
- When they sense the danger, the Acacia Leaf Beetles hide their legs and
antenna under. When we come closer, like most other small beetles, they slide
to the edge of the leaf and drop to the ground. So we always put our hand
under the leaf when we want to have a closer look. When the beetle first drop
onto our hand, it hides all its legs and antenna under its body and do not
move. After a while, when its feel there is no danger, it will walk around on
our hand. The second picture shows the beetle on Tony's finger.
- - Shell cover
- - Cuckoo wasps roll up in ball when
- - Fecal shield is used to block bites of
- - Green lacewing larvae plucks waxy wool
from body of wooly alder aphid, its
- prey. It sticks
the material on its own body, which protects it from ants that herd
- and protect the
aphids for honeydew. If you pull off the material, then ants attack
- - rthmyic motiom, not seen by insect eye?
- * Avtive time period
- - active at night only
- * use other way
of communicating, not by eyes
- * low temperture
- - active at evening
- * Hatbita
- - to live in water, underground, inside
- - build shelter
- - Making nests, cocoons, cases, webs
- - parasite inside others body
- * alert system
- - detect the predator first
- - see them first
- - hear them first
- - feel them first
- - communication
between same species
- warning signals
- feeding in group
- - group power
- - Passive
- * Not eatable, tonxic
- - look not
- * Hard cover shell
- * hiding, avoid being detected
- - mimic as plants material - camouflage,
- leaves, twigs, bark, sand surface,
- patterned to blend in with their surroundings.
- colour pattern broken its body shape
- leaves mining, a good way to avoid parasite,
- * body structure
- thin to move in crack
- tube to move in tunnel
- Hard shell, spiny, hairy
- - Others
- * Alistisum
- - bees
- - aphids - large
in number, genetically identical, a lot of oneself
- - do not spend
energy and material in defence
- * not be the constant food sourse
- - Period Cicada
- - Being rare -
- * Moths scale again spider webs
- * Short adult life to avoid predation
except there is the reasons
- - parental care
- - socitial
How many strategies do butterflies use to avoid predators?
On studying the butterflies, we observed the following strategies that
butterflies use to avoid predators. Compared with other insects, butterflies are
colourful and with different pattern. Some of their escaping strategies
are based on the variety of colour pattern.
Eye spot pattern
Eye spot patterns are common in butterflies. Many species have this pattern
on top side, underneath or both side of their front and hind wings. Those spot
help the butterflies to survive in two ways. Some butterflies have two big eye
spots on their hind wings. When they are at rest, they cover the eye spots by
the front wings. When a predator come close, the butterfly will suddenly show
the eye spots, to scare them away. Some other butterflies with only small
eyespots. Usually those spots are on the edge of their wings, the less critical
part of their body. Those spot are used to puzzle the predator to use it as
target. If being attached, the butterfly just loss a small bit of wing edge and
fly away. Sometimes we find find a Evening brown butterfly with a small
triangular price of wing is missing, just like being biten off by a bird.
Some Butterflies have tails on their hind wings, such as the Swallowtail
butterflies and the Coppers. Some of them, their tail and their eyespot pattern,
may be confused as antenna and eyes by some predators, and predict their moving
direction wrongly so that they can fly away.
Being poisonous and with warning colour
Some butterflies, like the Wanderer,
is poisonous or distasteful. It is an advantage if they can be easily
distinguished by their predators. The bright colors serve
to warn birds or other predators that this butterfly is bad-tasting.
The Common Crow and the Dwarf Crow look similar. In some case
two different but both are distasteful butterflies evolved to mimic each other.
This enhance the warning colour effect. In other cases, other butterflies,
although perfectly edible, may have colours that mimic the
bad-tasting species and therefore gain protection for
themselves. Mimicry is a interesting evidence of evolution.
The Evening Brown
is hardly seen when it rests among the dry leaves. Certain color patterns may
help the butterfly blend into its background and be
protected from birds or other would-be predators by
Some butterflies are flying very fast. Their flying pattern is different with
those butterflies with warning colour protection. We can see the Wanderer
gliding in the air but will never see the Blue Triangle flying in straight line.
The Blue Triangle flying very fast and in a zig-zag path. Its wings will not
stop flicking even it stop and visiting a flower. We can catch the Wanderers
much easier than the Blue Triangle.
Scales to escape from spider wed
We seldom see the butterflies caught by the spider web. The scales on the
butterfly wings are the major reason. The butterfly scales are important weapons
evolved to defend them from the spider web.
[ Up ] [ Insects as Prey ] [ Insects as Predators ] [ Insects and Plants ] [ Escape strategy ] [ Caterpillar Escape ] [ Mole Cricket Song ] [ Cow Pea Aphids ] [ Feigning Death Behaviour ] [ Eucalyptus Leaf Beetle ] [ Insects Migration ] [ Attended by Ants ]